Such oath swearing would be understandable mediante view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Such oath swearing would be understandable mediante view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Therefore, the degree preciso which the central government and its agents were involved per the dissemination of the imperial image sopra the early Colmare must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined

Per passage mediante Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [verso religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced sopra great numbers and quickly distributed to the armies throughout the Completare. This practice may be implied per per passage in Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) con which Augustus’ adopted son and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal puro that of Augustus, was shown (i.di nuovo., mediante effigy) to all the armies: filius [Tiberius], compagno di lavoro imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes per exercitus ostentatur. Needless to say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around esatto all the armies throughout the Colmare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer puro his image durante one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed onesto them.

Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares puro all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Un migliaio lares geniumque ducis, ora tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina pizzo colunt (“The city has per thousand Lares and the Genius of the pubblico [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.ancora., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need preciso distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult con Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced sopra bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images durante per relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as con the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true in the case of the distribution of life-size models durante plaster or terracotta preciso meet the great demand of cities and municipalities esatto honor a new Princeps by setting up his image mediante many different contexts.

Needless esatto say, such a taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective

The portraits of Caligula that have come down puro us — regardless of the medium of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, preciso varying degrees, verso given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula per all mass media that must have once existed during his principate, only a small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are verso few small bronze busts, several cameos, and verso couple of glass-paste medallions. Verso good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes durante a more obvious fashion than others. The monarca-cutting of verso portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as verso result of some sort of intelligenza damnata, is a well-known phenomenon mediante Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner per this collection of essays.