Computational authorship studies are an increasingly popular topic for research among specialists durante both elaboratore science and the humanities

Computational authorship studies are an increasingly popular topic for research among specialists durante both elaboratore science and the humanities

It can be considered verso form of style-based document authentication (Echtheitskritik), which has valuable applications that extend well beyond the domain of literary analysis, esatto, for instance, the domain of forensic sciences. According preciso Stamatatos’s 2009 survey of the field, ‘[t]he main timore behind statistically or computationally-supported authorship attribution is that by measuring some textual features we can distinguish between texts written by different authors.’22 22 Ed. Stamatatos, ‘Per survey’ (n. 14, above) 538. christianmingle on-line This basic assumption implies that it should be possible to assess, for any new unseen document, whether or not it was written by other authors for whom we have texts available. Nowadays computational authorship studies are often considered a subfield of stylometry durante the digital humanities, the broader computational study of the writing style of texts.23 23 D. Holmes, ‘The evolution of stylometry con humanities scholarship’, LLC 13 (1998) 111–17.

While stylometry has per rich history, dating back sicuro at least the nineteenth century, it is clear that it received its most important impetus only in the past two or three decades, stimulated by the rise of (personal) computing and the increased availability of large bodies of text sopra electronic form. Apart from the influential, yet more conventional, statistical analyses carried out by pioneers such as Mosteller and Wallace or John Burrows well before the 1990s, an influential approach per authorship studies has been esatto approach the attribution of anonymous texts as verso ‘text categorization’ problem.24 24 Mosteller and Wallace, Inference and disputed authorship (n. 4, above) and J. Burrows, Computation into criticism: a study of Jane Austen’s novels (Oxford 1987). Heavily influenced by parallel research mediante cervello elettronico science, the ispirazione was preciso optimize verso statistical classifier on example texts by verso number of available candidate authors, much like verso spam filter nowadays is still trained on manually annotated emails preciso learn how puro distinguish between ‘junk’ email and normal messages.25 25 F. Sebastiani, ‘Machine learning durante automated text categorisation’, ACM Pc Surveys 34 (2002) 1–47. After allenamento such per classifier on this example scadenza, the classifier could then be used puro categorize or classify anonymous text as belonging to one of the istruzione authors’ oeuvres.

It resembles verso police lineup, con which the correct author of an anonymous text has puro be singled out from per series of available candidate authors for whom reference or ‘training’ material is available

This text categorization setup is commonly known as ‘authorship attribution’.26 26 The following paragraph heavily draws on M. Koppel and Y. Winter, ‘Determining if two documents are written by the same author’, JASIST 65 (2014) 178–187. For a number of years, practitioners of stylometry have che razza di onesto acknowledge the limitations of authorship attribution, because it necessarily assumes that the correct target author is indeed included durante the set of candidates. In many real-world cases, this problematic assumption cannot possibly be made, because the batteria of relevant candidates is difficult or impossible puro establish beforehand. Because of this, the setup of authorship verification has recently been introduced as verso new framework: here, the task is onesto verify whether or not an anonymous document was written by one or several of per series of candidate authors. In some sense, authorship verification redefines the text categorization problem by adding an additional category label: ‘None of the above.’

Per the present context, it should be emphasized that the problem posed by the HA is verso ‘vanilla’ example of per problem con authorship verification: while the raccolta indeed contains per number of (auto-) attributions, the veracity of all of these has been questioned con previous scholarship

Verification is hence an increasingly common experimental setup con authorship studies, and is the topic of per dedicated track durante the yearly PAN competition, an annual competition on finding computational solutions to issues per present-day textual forensics, mostly related esatto the detection of plagiarism, authorship, and social programma misuse (such as grooming or Wikipedia vandalism).27 27 The competition’s website is pan.webis.de. The most recent survey of an authorship verification track is: Addirittura. Stamatatos et al., ‘Overview of the author identification task at PAN 2015′ durante Working Notes Papers of the CLEF 2015 Evaluation Labs, ancora. L. Cappellato et al. (2015). Generally speaking, authorship verification is per more generic problem than authorship attribution – i.anche. every attribution problem could, con principle, be cast as per verification problem – but it has also proven onesto be more challenging. Durante our experiments, we have therefore attempted preciso radically minimize any assumptions on our part as onesto the authorial provenance of the texts durante the HA. For each piece of text analysed below, we propose puro independently assess the probability that it was written by one of the (alleged) individual authors identified mediante the insieme.