Bee Variety Diversity
Out of 2009 so you can 2018, 192 bee variety (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) is involved in the Calanques Government Playground thru one another on the internet and you’ll dish pitfall series. They belonged so you’re able to six household and 38 genera. Megachilidae are among the most groups-steeped family, followed by Apidae and Halictidae, that have 53, 44, and 43 categories, respectively. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 is largely the fresh richest genus, with 33 range, whenever you are seven genera was in fact depicted about only one variety (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Dining table step one [on line merely] ). With the jackknife 1 and you will dos spiders, the brand new bee variety richness is largely estimated are anywhere between ± 9.89 and you will ± . The newest viewed richness thus portrayed 71.step 3 to help you 79.6% of one’s projected bee richness ( Desk 2). The latest Chao1 approach estimated the fresh new viewed fullness to find 76.8% of the prospective restriction richness ( Dining table 2). The quintessential plentiful species is largely Apis mellifera L. (276 anybody), that have Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and 168 people, respectively), and Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 some one). In the course of time, fifty classes (26%) were illustrated of the singular individual (singletons).
Ecosystem Attributes out-of Bees
Regarding your ecological services away from nesting demands, i realized 59 solitary bee types nesting a lot more than floors, 92 solitary bee range nesting below ground and you will 23 cleptoparasitic variety, just like 31.eight, 47.9, and you may several.0% of your own done bee assortment richness, respectively. We notion of five private varieties (bumble bees and honey bees-dos.1%). Sooner, new nesting choice from fourteen range are nevertheless unknown (7.3%- Supp Table step one [on line only] ). Regarding the floral diet plan regarding bee groups, we unearthed that 105 items (54.7%) foraged into the of several bush types (we.many years., generalist variety, polylectic) and you will 51 species (twenty six.5%) foraged on one plant members of the family if you don’t one/partners plant species (i.ages., elite group species, oligolectic). Into left thirty six bee range (18.8%), this new floral diet plan was not recognized (elizabeth.g., which have cleptoparasitic varieties). not, really generalist kinds showed a choice for just one otherwise a number out of plant parents ( Supp Desk step http://www.hookupwebsites.org/bbpeoplemeet-review one [on the internet only] ). For the 49 singletons, fourteen bee categories (28%) had been professionals, and 9 bee types (18%) was cleptoparasitic ( Supp Desk step 1 [online simply] ).
A passionate IUCN reputation are plentiful getting 178 range (leaving out the fresh kinds buildings and not known types). The quintessential, 47 designs is classified as the investigation without having (DD-twenty-six.4%), 124 types was indeed at least alarmed (LC-69.6%), half dozen variety ended up being close threatened (NT-step three.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and one variety is assumed threatened (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table 1 [on the internet only] ). Three oligolectic groups were one of several eight endangered bee types. Good. ovatula and you will C. albomaculatus is professional to your Fabaceae, D. argentata is actually an expert to your Caprifoliaceae.
Out of 2009 in order to 2018, 38 sorts of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) had been stuck inside Calanques Federal Park. They belonged to help you twenty four genera ( Supp Table dos [online just] ). The absolute most abundant genera have been Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 people), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (fourteen anyone), and you can Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de- Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville in the Latreille, 1828 (13 people), whereas 20 systems (53%) were illustrated in the just one private ( Supp Desk 2 [on line merely] ). Brand new bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) was illustrated of the 20 varieties, together with four singletons (25%) ( Supp Desk step three [on line merely] ). The brand new quote out-of complete assortment fullness away-out-of hover flies and you can bee flies are ranging from 83 and you may 97 classes by using the jackknife 1 and dos spiders, respectively. For that reason, the latest viewed fullness portrayed 59.8–69.9% of your estimated hover fly and bee travel fullness ( Desk dos).
Kent Wells Executive officer experienced with a demonstrated story of more than a decade that works in the industry of Fine Arts developing more than a hundred collections of private and corporate art. Author of two books, contemporary art curator shows nationally and internationally. Creative designer and curator of art-centered experiences.